Therapeutic Benefits of Mirrored Oligonucleotides in Cancer
Therapeutic oligonucleotides are powerful and versatile biopolymers developed as drugs for clinical applications due to their straightforward synthesis and design. On the other hand, many of their most promising applications require therapeutic oligonucleotides to be stable in complex biological environments such as blood and living cells. The lifetime of administered oligonucleotides can be compromised significantly in vivo due to unintended interactions, for example, with enzymes that specifically degrade bacterial or viral DNA or RNA.1
Harnessing Ubiquitylation for Drug Discovery
Deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs) detach small ubiquitin modifications from protein substrates in eukaryotic cells. DUBs regulate many aspects of cell biology such as cell cycle progression, cell division, and differentiation.1 The role of DUBs in pathophysiology has evolved remarkably over the past several years. Defects in ubiquitylation processes have been linked to sporadic and genetic syndromes, as well as cancers and neurological disorders.2,3
Techniques to Detect Unusual Nucleic Acid Structures
Guanine quadruplexes (G-quadruplexes or G4s) are unusual nucleic acid structures with distinct biological and chemical functions. They have occupied significant attention in the nucleic acid world since they were first identified in 1962 as the basis for the aggregation of 5’-guanosine monophosphate molecules.
Analytical Weights and Balances: Minimizing Errors
Pharma companies that use balances for analytical purposes must check them regularly to ensure they meet required standards and to prevent human errors. The European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & Healthcare (EDQM) has recently published updated guidelines1 for analytical balancing that describe quality standards for ingredients, dosage forms, and analysis methods for medicine. These updates affect all pharmaceutical companies that use balances for analytical purposes, including any weighing performed as part of experimental tests and for preparing buffer solutions.2